For the fast and accurate self-localization of mobile robots, landmarks can be used very efficiently in the complex workspace. In this paper, we propose a simple color landmark model for self-localization and a fast landmark detection and tracking algorithm based on the proposed landmark model. We develop a color landmark with a symmetric and repetitive structure, which shows invariant color histogram characteristics under some geometric distortions. Detection and tracking of the model are accomplished by a factored sampling technique in which color similarity is estimated by the color histogram intersection. We also use the color similarity to update the color histogram model of the landmark model for robust tracking under illumination change. We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique through experiments in cluttered indoor environments.