In this paper, we propose a real-time line matching method for stereo systems. To achieve real-time performance while retaining a high level of matching precision, we first propose a nonparametric transform to represent the spatial relations between neighboring lines and nearby textures as a binary stream. Since the length of a line can vary across images, the matching costs between lines are computed within an overlap area based on the binary stream. The overlap area is determined for each line pair by employing the properties of a rectified image pair. Finally, the line correspondence is determined using a winner-takes-all method with a left-right consistency check. To reduce the computational time requirements further, we filter out unreliable matching candidates in advance based on their rectification properties. The performance of the proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art methods in terms of the computational time, matching precision, and recall. The proposed method required 47 ms to match lines from an image pair in the KITTI dataset with an average precision of 95%. We also verified the proposed method under image blur, illumination variation, and viewpoint changes.